Thursday, July 16, 2020

How to Deal With Low Frustration Tolerance

How to Deal With Low Frustration Tolerance Stress Management Management Techniques Print How to Deal With Low Frustration Tolerance By Amy Morin, LCSW facebook twitter instagram Amy Morin, LCSW, is a psychotherapist, author of the bestselling book 13 Things Mentally Strong People Dont Do, and a highly sought-after speaker. Learn about our editorial policy Amy Morin, LCSW Updated on February 04, 2020 Luis Alvarez / Digital Vision / Getty Images More in Stress Management Management Techniques Physical Techniques Relaxation Time Management Effects on Health Situational Stress Job Stress Household Stress Relationship Stress In This Article Table of Contents Expand Consequences Causes Signs Strategies View All Back To Top Frustration is an emotion that stems from challenges that stand in the way of goals. The ability to deal with frustration is known as frustration tolerance. Individuals with high frustration tolerance are able to deal with setbacks successfully. Individuals with low frustration tolerance may grow frustrated at seemingly minor, everyday inconveniences like traffic jams and noisy kids. Individuals with low frustration tolerance may give up on tough tasks immediately. The mere thought of having to wait in line or work on a task that they don’t understand may feel intolerable. If you fall on the low tolerance end of the frustration tolerance spectrum, it may cause some problems in your life. Fortunately, there are some things you can do to improve your frustration tolerance. Consequences Frustration tolerance is a core component of psychological well-being.?? Individuals who can handle setbacks are more likely to persist at their goals, which can help them feel good and achieve more. Those with low frustration tolerance may give up easily or avoid tough tasks altogether. It can take a serious toll on their achievement. It can also affect relationships. Individuals with low frustration tolerance might be more likely to lash out when they’re frustrated. They may have little patience for their partners’ behavior or their intolerance to everyday situations (like waiting for a table at the restaurant), and this can lead to increased tension in the relationship. Causes There are several reasons why some people struggle with low frustration tolerance: Mental illness. Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can decrease a person’s frustration tolerance.?? Studies have also found that individuals with ADHD tend to have less tolerance for frustration as well.Personality. Personality also plays a role in frustration tolerance. Some people naturally tolerate frustrating circumstances better than others.Belief systems. An individual’s beliefs also play a role in how well they tolerate frustration. A person who thinks things like “Life should be easy,” or “Other people should always meet my expectations,” will be less tolerant of everyday stressors than someone else. Signs Low frustration tolerance looks a little different in everyone. But here are some common signs: Frequent procrastination due to an inability to tolerate the frustration associated with a tough or boring taskImpulsive attempts to “fix” a situation due to impatience rather than waiting for the issue to correct itselfExaggerating temporary discomfortInsisting on pursuing immediate gratificationGiving up immediately when presented with a challenge or obstacleGrowing irritable or angry about everyday stressorsThinking or insisting, “I can’t stand this.”Avoiding tasks that might cause distress Build Frustration Tolerance Frustration tolerance can be learned. With practice and consistent dedication, you can decrease the intensity of your frustration, and you can learn to express your feelings in socially appropriate ways. Here are some strategies that can help you build frustration tolerance. The 6 Stages of Behavior Change Accept Tough Situations Feelings of frustration get fueled by thoughts like “These things always happen to me!” or “Why does traffic have to be so bad every day? This is horrible.” Respond to exaggeratedly negative statements with more realistic statements. Instead of thinking about the unfairness of traffic jams, remind yourself, “There are millions of cars on the road every day. Traffic jams are going to happen.” When you catch yourself dwelling on the unfairness of life, consider whether it’s a situation you can change or whether you need to change the way you respond to it. If the situation is outside of your control, then focus on acceptance. Give Yourself a Pep Talk Frustration can stem from doubting your inability to tolerate distress. Thinking “I can’t stand to wait in line,” or “I am too overwhelmed to try again,” will increase your frustration. These types of thoughts can also prevent you from doing tasks that might lead to feelings of frustration. Remind yourself that you can cope with distressing feelings. Whether you take a deep breath and try again, or you count to 10 when you’re feeling upset, experiment with coping skills that will help you deal with frustration in a healthy way. 40 Coping Skills That Will Help You Fight Stress Learn How to Calm Your Body Feelings of frustration can lead to physiological symptoms, like increased heart rate and higher blood pressure. The changes in your body might cause you to doubt your ability to deal with frustration, which can lead to a vicious cycle that’s hard to break. Knowing how to calm your body can be key to calming your mind. Deep breaths, meditation, progressive muscle relaxation, and physical activity can help you manage the physical symptoms of frustration in a healthy way. Experiment with different relaxation strategies until you discover what works for you. Then, when your feelings of frustration begin to rise, you can spring into action and calm your body before your symptoms become too intense. Practice Tolerating Frustration Just like any other skill, frustration tolerance requires practice. Start small, and work on practicing your skills. Purposely do something that is mildly frustrating, like working on a tough puzzle or waiting in a long line. Manage your self-talk, and use healthy coping skills to deal with your feelings. When you are successful at managing your frustration, you’ll gain confidence in your ability to tolerate distress. Over time, you can gradually expose yourself to more and more frustrating situations. A Word From Verywell While you might be tempted to assume that you were simply born with a short fuse, your low frustration tolerance doesn’t have to be permanent. You can take steps to build this tolerance, which could improve the quality of your life. So if you’re having difficulty improving your frustration tolerance on your own, or if it seems to be a symptom of a bigger issue, then talk to a mental health professional. Treatment may range from talk therapy and addressing thoughts that fuel your frustration, to considering medication that treats underlying issues like depression.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Criminal Law Murder - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1502 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Essay any type Level High school Did you like this example? Criminal Law Murder The most serious offence that Marion could be charged with is the murder of Spike and Toby. Murder is defined in law as causing the death of a human being within the Queens peace with the intention to kill or cause grievous bodily harm. Therefore murder comprises of two elements, these are 1) the act (actus reus) and 2) the intention (mens rea). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Criminal Law Murder" essay for you Create order Since the implementation of the Law Reform (Year and a Day Rule) Act 1996 it is not necessary for the death to occur within a year and a day of the act or omission. The first element to be satisfied is the actus reus and causation. Marion clearly performed the act of setting fire to Spike and Tobys flat but did this cause the deaths of both Toby and Spike? The accuseds act does not necessarily need to be the sole or even the main cause of death, it is required that the accused act made a significant contribution to the consequences as stated in R v Cheshire . Toby was pronounced dead at the scene of the fire and there is no information suggesting there was an alternative cause of death. Therefore it is clear that smoke inhalation from the fire was a significant contribution to the cause of Tobys death. In the case of Spikes death it is slightly more complicated as the medical treatment he received may constitute an intervening act (novus actus interveniens) in the chain of causati on. In the authority of R v Jordan it was decided if medical treatment received is the sole cause of death and was grossly negligent the chain of causation will be broken. However, if the injury caused by the accused is the operative cause of the victims death the chain of causation will not be broken as confirmed in R v Smith . In Smith the facts concerned a barrack room brawl in which the accused had stabbed the victim; the victim had been dropped twice on the way to the medical room. The medical staff failed to recognise the extent of the victims injuries resulting in the victim s‘death. The accuseds conviction for murder was upheld as the wound had been the operative cause of the victims death. in the case of R v Cheshire Beldam LJ stated â€Å"it will only be in the extraordinary and unusual case that such treatment can be said to be so independent of the acts of the accused that it could be regarded in law as the cause of the victims death to the exclusion of the acc useds act†. Therefore in the case of Spikes death it will be considered if the fact that the life support machine was not properly connected was so independent of the injuries suffered from the fire. It is likely that the smoke inhalation from the fire will be considered as the operative cause of Spikes death and the element of causation will be satisfied. Therefore the elements of the actus rea and causation will be satisfied in case of Spike and Toby‘s deaths In order for the mens rea of murder to be satisfied the prosecution must establish that the accused intended to kill or cause grievous bodily harm as stated in R v Moloney and confirmed in R v Hancock and Shankland and R v Woollin in the House of Lords. In Woollin the House of Lords decided the intention would be satisfied if death or serious injury was a virtually certain result of the accused action. However, there is no absolute magic formula, Lord Scarman stated in Hancock the more probable the consequences the more probable the accused foresaw it. Marion may contend that she only intended for Spike to be re-housed by the council and she had no knowledge that Toby was in the house. In the circumstances that an individual has the intention to commit a particular offence against a particular victim but actually commits that offence against another, the mens rea can be transferred to the actual victim. This principle is illustrated in the cases R v Mitchell and Attorney-Generals Reference No.3 of 1994 . In Mitchell the accused had been found guilty of manslaughter when he had deliberately punched a 72 year old man who had feel against an 82year old woman. As a result of the fall the 82 year old woman suffered a broken femur which required surgery, during the surgery the woman died due to complication that arose. The argument that the doctrine could only apply to the intended victim and not the actual victim were the same person was rejected by the Court of Appeal. Although the decisio n in Attorney-Generals Reference No.3 was reversed by the House of Lords the case illustrated that the question of mens rea is one of fact for the jury to decide. Therefore any malice towards Spike will be transferred towards Toby. Marion may claim the defence of provocation under section 3 of the Homicide Act 1957 as her act was in response to the intimidation and harassment inflicted by Spike. The test for provocation is one of two limbs, these are; 1) the subjective condition that the accused was actually provoked to lose his self control and 2) the objective condition that the reasonable man would have done so. Devlin J stated in Duffy Circumstances which induce a desire for revenge are inconsistent with provocation.a desire for revenge means that the person had time to thinkthat would negative a sudden temporary loss of self control†. However, Lord Taylor in R v Ahluwalia concluded that a delay in reacting will be taken into account but it will not necessarily negate t he defence of provocation . The position currently is that killings that take place after a long period of provocation will be distinguished from cases of cumulative provocation. It can be that the last instance even if relatively minor can be a trigger as in Humphreys if the instance caused a loss of self control. Lord Tucker in Bullard v The Queen stated that the direction to the jury is that if they are not satisfied beyond a reasonable doubt that the killing is unprovoked the verdict is one of manslaughter. The current standard of the objective element is that having regard to the actual provocation and the gravity for the defendant, would an individual of the same age having the ordinary power of self control might have done what the defendant has done as stated in-G for Jersey v Holley and confirmed in R v James . It is clear that Marion suffered a loss of self control it may also be possible that Spikes last act of pretending to stab Marion will be viewed in light of the p revious harassment by Spike. In the circumstances that the Crown Prosecution Servicer or the jury are satisfied that Marion only intended for Spike to be re- housed she may be found guilty of constructive manslaughter. It will only be necessary or the prosecution to establish that Marion intended to start the fire not that she knew it was dangerous. The act will be deemed dangerous if a sober and reasonable person at the scene of the crime watching the unlawful act knowing what the defendant knows in the circumstances and seeing what the defendant sees would have foreseen the risk of some physical harm resulting there from as explained in R v Dawson .The court appeared to introduce a third element in to constructive manslaughter, this was that the accused act must be directed at the victim and likely to cause immediate injury. However, this was rapidly overturned for in R v Mitchell for the act must simply directed to another. In R v Goodfellow the accused had sent fire to his ho use with the intention of being re-housed by the council, the fire had resulted in the death of some of his family. The aimed at doctrine was rejected in favour of the act directed another test the accused was convicted of constructive and reckless manslaughter. In Andrew v DPP Lord Atkin stated â€Å"of all crimes manslaughter appears to afford most difficulties of definition, for it concerns homicide in so many and varying conditions, it is submitted that the mens rea for the unlawful act of criminal damage should suffice. This was confirmed by the decision in R v G . As Marion clearly intended to set fire to Spikes flat it is likely that she will be found guilty of constructive manslaughter. In the unlikely event that Marion is found not guilty of constructive manslaughter the least serious offence that she could be liable for are under the Criminal Damage Act 1971 such as, intentionally or recklessly endangering life under section 1(3) and arson under section 1(3). Bibliography Elliot Quinn Criminal Law 7th Edition Pearson Education Limited Jonathan Herring Text, Cases and Materials on Criminal Law Third Edition Oxford publishing David Ormerod, Smith Hogan Criminal Law 12th Edition Oxford Blackstones Criminal Practice 2008 Oxford Norrie. A â€Å"After Woollin† [1999] Crim LR 532 ‘Legislating the Criminal Code: involuntary Manslaughter, Law Commission No.237 [1996]

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Laws On Preventing Child Abuse Essay - 1639 Words

Before the mid-1900s, people believed parents should have absolute control of their children and husbands should have absolute control of their wives. They also believed they could own people. Since slavery was allowed, at least in the South, owners could beat their workers―many who were eight-year-olds. Laws on preventing child abuse have failed but there have been progressive, changing attitudes towards abuse. When the Civil War ended in 1865, the senate passed the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery, and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act in 1986 prohibited child labor. Also, the legislative passed the Child Abuse Prevention Treatment Act (CAPTA) in 1974 stating that child abuse is a crime. However, now, abuse is more common than we actually think. Each day, parents mistreat their children at homes and even in public. Some parents, publically, gently slap the children’s back, but others go to the extent of vigorously pulling their hair and beating them up. People should intervene when a parent is hitting his child if the situation is getting out of hand, for example, if the parent is dragging her kid by the hair or if the child seems humiliated. People should interfere when a parent is harshly hitting her child because it could stop serious injury to her. Parents hit their children in public because they’re â€Å"disciplining† them for doing something wrong. However, some parents further hurt their children to the point where blood is shed. Christopher Mele,Show MoreRelatedThe Key Aspects Of The Relationship Between Poverty And The Greater Economic Hardship1514 Words   |  7 Pagesbetween abuse and neglect and the greater economic hardship which will have an impact on poverty and how this affects the chance of a child being abused or neglected. Looking at the evidence it is clear to see that there is a strong link associated between poverty and a child suffering from abuse and neglect. 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Alu Potol Industry of Bd Free Essays

Chapter 1: Information Systems in Global Business Today [MIS -L10/e] Multiple Choices 1. When nearly all core business processes are digitally enabled, Correct Answer: the firm is more competitive and efficient. 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Alu Potol Industry of Bd or any similar topic only for you Order Now Which business objective refers to the achievement of higher levels of efficiency and productivity? Correct Answer: Operational excellence 3. Which business objective refers to increasing a company’s revenues while decreasing its costs? Correct Answer: Customer and supplier intimacy 4. Which of the following consists of all the hardware and software that a firm needs to achieve its business objectives? Correct Answer: Information technology 5. Data shaped into meaningful form are called Correct Answer: information. 6. Raw facts that have not been organized into a useful form are called Correct Answer: data. 7. Which activity of an information system converts raw input into a meaningful form? Correct Answer: Processing 8. Which activity of an information system helps an organization evaluate or correct the input stage? Correct Answer: Feedback 9. Computer literacy focuses primarily on: Correct Answer: a knowledge of information technology. 10. The responsibility for monitoring the daily activities of a business falls to this organizational level: Correct Answer: Middle management. 11. The world’s largest and most widely used network is the Correct Answer: Internet. 12. The linkage of two or more computers together to share data or resources is called a(n): Correct Answer: network. 13. Which of the following could not be classified a complementary organizational asset required to optimize returns from information technology investments? Correct Answer: The Internet and telecommunications infrastructure. 4. The technical approach to information systems includes: Correct Answer: computer science, management science, and operations research. 15. Which of the following would not be classified as a technical approach to the study of information systems? Correct Answer: Economics True or False 1. Changes in the business environment such as new accounting laws are spurring the growth of digital information. Correct Answer: True 2. Business processes refer to the streamlining of standard operating procedures in order to eliminate bottlenecks. Correct Answer: False . There is a growing interdependence between a firm’s ability to use information technology and its ability to implement corporate strategies and achieve corporate goals. Correct Answer: True 4. The more intimacy a business can create with its suppliers, the more it can lower costs. Correct Answer: True 5. Federal and state regulations can force a business to improve its information systems. Correct Answer: True 6. Information is defined as data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings. Correct Answer: True 7. Information system input only captures data from inside the business but not from its external environment. Correct Answer: False 8. Members of the organization evaluate and correct inputs through feedback. Correct Answer: True 9. Computer literacy focuses on both people and technology. Correct Answer: False 10. Knowledge workers are engineers or architects who design products or services. Correct Answer: True 11. Each organization has a unique culture. Correct Answer: True 12. The Internet has created a universal technology platform that allows businesses to create new services. Correct Answer: True 13. Intranets and extranets use the same technology platforms as the Internet. Correct Answer: True 14. Complementary assets are those assets required to derive value from a secondary investment. Correct Answer: False 15. It can be said that â€Å"all information systems are forms of behavioral systems†. Correct Answer: False Essay 1. Provide an overview of the six business objectives of information systems. 2. Information systems produce the information that organizations need to make decisions, control operations, analyze problems, and create new products or services. Identify and describe the three activities found in information systems. 3. Explain the difference between computer literacy and information literacy. 4. Briefly describe how information systems influence organizations, people, and technology. 5. The study of information systems is a multidisciplinary field. Identify the six major disciplines that contribute problems, issues, and solutions to the study of information systems. Explain why no single theory or perspective dominates. Chapter 2: Global E-Business: How Businesses Use Information Systems Multiple Choices 1. Logically related sets of activities that define how business tasks are performed are called Correct Answer: business processes. 2. Which business function is responsible for providing customer service support? Correct Answer: Sales and marketing 3. Which business function is responsible for determining where to locate new plants? Correct Answer: Production and manufacturing 4. Which business function is responsible for tracking payroll transactions? Correct Answer: Accounting and finance 5. Which type of system tracks elementary activities of an organization? Correct Answer: Transaction processing system (TPS) . Which type of system produces reports on a regular schedule in a predetermined format? Correct Answer: Management information system 7. Which type of system is most often used for analyzing data? Correct Answer: Decision-support system 8. These systems address nonroutine decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight because there is no agreed-on procedure for arrivin g at a solution. Correct Answer: Executive support systems 9. Systems that span all functional areas and focus on executing business processes across the firm are called Correct Answer: enterprise applications. 0. Which system stores all organizational data in a single central data repository? Correct Answer: Enterprise system 11. Which of the following would not describe how a firm can benefit from supply chain management systems? Correct Answer: Control the actions of machines and equipment 12. Which type of enterprise application is specifically used to help a business increase sales? Correct Answer: Customer relationship management (CRM) system 13. Which type of enterprise application stores directories of employees with special areas of expertise? Correct Answer: Knowledge management system 14. This term refers to the use of digital technology and the Internet to execute the major business processes in an enterprise: Correct Answer: Electronic business. 15. Which person is responsible for the overall use of information technology in a large conglomerate? Correct Answer: Chief Information Officer (CIO) True/False 1. Business processes refer to the manner in which work is organized, coordinated, and focused to produce a valuable product or service. Correct Answer: True 2. Information systems enhance business processes by enabling entirely new processes that are capable of transforming the business. Correct Answer: True 3. A well-designed single system can provide all the information an organization needs. Correct Answer: False 4. A human resource system is designed to plan the long-term force needs of an organization. Correct Answer: True 5. Transaction processing systems are designed primarily to analyze data and provide periodic reports to middle managers. Correct Answer: False 6. Much of the data in management information systems comes from transaction processing systems (TPS). Correct Answer: True 7. Transaction processing systems generally are flexible and have tremendous analytical capabilities. Correct Answer: False 8. Decision support systems (DSS) often rely on information from external sources. Correct Answer: True 9. Executive support systems are designed to address nonroutine decisions requiring judgment, evaluation, and insight. Correct Answer: True 10. Transaction processing systems are the only system that uses portals to present information to senior executives. Correct Answer: False 11. Supply chain management (SCM) systems are designed to collect data from various key business processes and store the data in a single central data repository. Correct Answer: False 12. Customer relationship management (CRM) systems help firm’s identify, attract, and retain the most profitable customers. Correct Answer: True 13. Intranets are internal networks built with the same tools and communication standards as the Internet and are used for the internal distribution of information to employees. Correct Answer: True 14. Buying and selling goods and services over the Internet is referred to as e-commerce. Correct Answer: True 15. Computer programmers constitute the principal liaisons between the information systems group and the rest of the organization. Correct Answer: False Essay 1. What are â€Å"business processes†? What purposes do they serve in the firm? 2. Explain the difference between a management information system and a decision-support system as they relate to middle managers. 3. Discuss the interrelationships among TPS, MIS, DSS, and ESS systems. 4. What is the function of a CRM system? 5. Businesses today are enabled by or based upon digital networks. What is meant by e-business and e-commerce? How to cite Alu Potol Industry of Bd, Essay examples

Saturday, April 25, 2020

The Road Not Taken Analysis Essay Example For Students

The Road Not Taken Analysis Essay EXPLANATION: The Road Not Taken Line 1 In this line Frost introduces the elements of his primary metaphor, the diverging roads. We will write a custom essay on The Road Not Taken Analysis specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Back to Poem Lines 2-3 Here the speaker expresses his regret at his human limitations, that he must make a choice. Yet, the choice is not easy, since long I stood before coming to a decision. Back to Poem Lines 4-5 He examines the path as best he can, but his vision is limited because the path bends and is covered over. These lines indicate that although the speaker would like to acquire more information, he is prevented from doing so because of the nature of his environment. Back to Poem Lines 6-8 In these lines, the speaker seems to indicate that the second path is a more attractive choice because no one has taken it lately. However, he seems to feel ambivalent, since he also describes the path as just as fair as the first rather than more fair. Back to Poem Lines 9-12 Although the poet breaks the stanza after line 10, the central idea continues into the third stanza, creating a structural link between these parts of the poem. Here, the speaker states that the paths are really about the same. Neither path has been traveled lately. Although hes searching for a clear logical reason to decide on one path over another, that reason is unavailable. Back to Poem Lines 13-15 The speaker makes his decision, trying to persuade himself that he will eventually satisfy his desire to travel both paths, but simultaneously admitting that such a hope is unrealistic. Notice the exclamation mark after line 13; such a punctuation mark conveys excitement, but that excitement is quickly undercut by his admission in the following lines. Back to Poem Lines 16-20 In this stanza, the tone clearly shifts. This is the only stanza which also begins with a new sentence, indicating a stronger break from the previous ideas. The speaker imagines himself in the future, discussing his life. What he suggests, here, though, appears to contradict what he has said earlier. At the end of the poem, in the future, he will claim that the paths were different from each other and that he courageously did not choose the conventional route. Perhaps he will actually believe this in the future; perhaps he only wishes that he could choose ;the one less traveled by.; .

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

Meet the Seven Celestial Sisters of the Sky

Meet the Seven Celestial Sisters of the Sky   In the story Top 10 Cool Things in the Sky, you get a sneak peak at a little star cluster that is famous the world over. Its called The Pleiades and makes its best appearance in the night skies from late November to through March each year. In November, theyre up from dusk to dawn. This star cluster has been observed from nearly every part of our planet, and everyone from amateur astronomers with small telescopes to astronomers using Hubble Space Telescope  has taken a shot of it.   Many of the worlds cultures and religions focus on the Pleiades. These stars have had many names and show up on clothing, flats, pottery, and artwork. The name we know these stars by now comes from the ancient Greeks, who saw them as a group of woman who were companions to the goddess Artemis. The seven brightest stars of the Pleiades are named after these women:   Maia, Electra, Taygete, Alcyone, Celaeno, Sterope, and Merope. There is a fascinating Wikipedia look at the Pleiades in different cultures here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pleiades_in_folklore_and_literature.   So, What are the Pleiades to Astronomers? They make up an open star cluster that lies about 400 light-years away, in the direction of the constellation Taurus, the Bull. Its six brightest stars are relatively easy to see with the naked eye, and folks with very sharp vision and a dark sky sight can see at least 7 stars here. In reality, the Pleiades has more than a thousand stars that formed in the last 150 million years. That makes them relatively young (compared to the Sun, which is about 4.5 billion years old). Interestingly enough, this cluster also contains many brown dwarfs: objects too hot to be planets but too cold to be stars. As theyre not very bright in optical light, astronomers turn to infrared-sensitive instruments to study them. What they learn helps them determine the ages of their brighter cluster neighbors and understand how star formation uses up the available material in a cloud. The stars in this cluster are hot and blue, and astronomers classify them as B-type stars. Currently the core of the cluster takes up an area of space about 8 light-years across. The stars are not gravitationally bound to each other, and so in about 250 million years they will begin to wander away from each other. Each star will travel on its own through the galaxy. Their stellar birthplace probably looked largely like the Orion Nebula, where hot young stars are forming in a region of space about 1,500 light-years away from us. Eventually these stars will go their separate ways as the cluster moves through the Milky Way. Theyll become whats known as a moving association or a moving cluster.   The Pleiades appear to be passing through a cloud of gas and dust that astronomers once thought was part of their birth cloud. It turns out this nebula (sometimes called the Maia Nebula) is unrelated to the stars. It does make a pretty sight, though. You can spot it in the nighttime sky pretty easy, and through binoculars or a small telescope, they look spectacular!

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Even in Pot-Legal States, Federal Marijuana Laws Remain

Even in Pot-Legal States, Federal Marijuana Laws Remain Even as more states legalize marijuana for recreational or medical uses, production, sale, and possession of marijuana in those states continue to be violations of federal drug laws.   And as the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reports, the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) will, under certain circumstances, arrest and prosecute violators of federal marijuana laws even in pot-legal states. Background As of June 2015, Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, Washington, and the District of Columbia had enacted laws legalizing marijuana for both recreational and medical uses. In all, 23 states and the District of Columbia currently had enacted laws legalizing marijuana in some form. However, in a classic example of federalism at work, the GAO noted that the U.S. Attorneys will continue to prosecute cases that threaten federal marijuana enforcement priorities, despite state legalization laws. Just for the record, the current federal penalties for possession of up to 50 kilograms of marijuana or 1 to 49 marijuana plants range from up to 5 years in prison and a fine of up to $250,000 for a first offense, to up to 10 years in prison and a fine of up to $500,000 for a second offense. What are the Federal Marijuana Enforcement Priorities? Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) officials and U.S. Attorneys in six states with medical marijuana laws told GAO investigators that their decisions on enforcement and prosecution of federal marijuana laws were typically based on three main factors: Resources needed to target the most significant public health and safety threats, such as violence associated with drug-trafficking organizations;Addressing the concerns of local law enforcement agencies regarding detrimental social side-effects related to the growth of the commercial medical marijuana industry; and Resources need to implement the DOJ’s current marijuana enforcement policy guidance. In an August 29, 2013 memo to all U.S. Attorneys, the DOJ made it clear that they should continue to use their â€Å"limited investigative and prosecutorial resources† to â€Å"rationally† address what the DOJ considers   When are Federal Marijuana Laws Most Likely to Be Enforced? In most cases, enforcement and prosecution of federal marijuana laws in the marijuana-legal states has been and will continue to be focused on preventing the following significant threats: That marijuana will be distributed to minors.That revenue from the sale of marijuana will go to criminal enterprises, gangs and drug cartels.That marijuana from states where it is legal under state laws will be distributed in other states.That state-authorized marijuana operations will be used as cover for trafficking other illegal drugs, like cocaine or heroin.That violence and firearms will be used as part of the growing and distribution of marijuana.That drugged driving and other â€Å"adverse public health consequences† will result from the use of marijuana.That marijuana will be grown on public lands, like national parks, possibly endanger the pubic or government employees.That marijuana will be possessed or used on federally-controlled property. GAO Finds Problems With DOJs Enforcement Monitoring Process According to the GAO, the DOJ molds its marijuana enforcement policies by monitoring the effects of state marijuana legalization in two ways: First, the U.S. Attorneys consult with state law enforcement officials about the potential impacts of federal marijuana enforcement policies. Second, the DOJ consults with the Drug Enforcement Administration and other federal agencies, including the Office of National Drug Control Policy to assess the marijuana enforcement-related data those agencies provide. However, the GAO reported that DOJ had failed to document and report on the federal marijuana enforcement monitoring program as required by its own guidelines. â€Å"Documenting a plan specifying its monitoring process would provide DOJ with greater assurance that its monitoring activities relative to DOJ marijuana enforcement guidance are occurring as intended,† reported the GAO. Providing all of the appropriate federal agencies with a fully documented plan would help the U.S. Attorneys identify state enforcement that are and are not effectively protecting the eight federal enforcement priorities. The DOJ agreed with the GAO’s recommendation that it create and share a fully-documented plan specifying its process for monitoring the effects of state marijuana legalization.